What makes boys and girls different? It can be a really complicated question, but when it comes down to biological sex in humans, the difference is in the Y chromosome. We know that the Y chromosome is important, but the scientists also know that it’s been shrinking in size over the millions of years and some even think that it might eventually disappear. But recent studies on the Y chromosome on a lot of mammals suggest that it has more important genes, besides the ones that contribute to “maleness”.
Most people have 23 pairs of chromosomes, one set from mom and the other set from dad.
22 pairs of these look the same in all humans, but the last pair is known as the sex chromosome: X and Y. Generally, biological females have two X chromosomes, and biological males have an X and a Y chromosome.
The Y chromosome contains way fewer functions than the X chromosome. As per history, the X and Y chromosomes of human ancestors were the same size and they could swap genetic information through a process called Genetic Recombination. Recombination helps us evolve over time and protects against potentially dangerous mutations in our genes.
Many researchers think that this decay must have leaved off in most mammals including humans over the past 25 million years or so. According to modern day research they found that, they have found some similar sex determining genes, like the SRY gene which helps develop male reproductive bits and in addition they also found genes conserved across the Y chromosome in many species that didn’t have to do with maleness.
Some scientists may think some important regulatory genes may require pairs.
And in males there’s one gene on the X and one paired on the Y.
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